Breeding, Facility Management, Internal Parasites and Deworming, Puppy and Kitten Care
Raising Your Dogs First Litter Successfully
November 29, 2022
Raising Your Dogs First Litter Successfully
Last updated: August 17, 2022 by Marty Greer, Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
Basic kennel setup and management planning for a new kennel is straightforward. We need to select great dogs and get them as healthy as possible. Then we need to manage moms and babies for optimal health to get healthy babies to their forever home.
Selective Breeding Dogs
You want to purchase the breeder's success! When selecting, research your breed a lot and have an ideal male dog in mind. You will want to keep the females raised from the females and males you select as foundation stock, so ask a lot of questions before you buy. You may want to start with babies and then raise them because adults are more difficult to select. Adult females have a more difficult time getting their first litters on the ground and getting puppies weaned successfully. She is not comfortable with the new facility, plus we don't know her history.
Health Tests for Breeding Dogs
All new dogs coming in need to be checked for Brucellosis and rechecked in 60 days to confirm they stay negative. Brucella tests cannot currently be run in the veterinary clinic's lab so there will be a delay in receiving results from reference labs. Most Brucellosis tests have a margin of error, and we do not want to find that a dog is positive after we have added multiple dogs, or we will have to prove all your dogs are negative before moving forward.
Parasites should be prevented. Deworm twice with fenbendazole, three weeks apart. Do not bring something in that we don't have.
Vaccinations are given once to adults and two or more times to puppies that we bring in. We recommend a 7-way vaccination with Lepto such as the Nobivac Canine 1-DAPPvL2 7- way dog vaccine. In some kennels, we also recommend Canine Coronavirus vaccines such as the Nobivac Canine 1-DAPPvL2+Cv 8- way dog vaccine . We want to prevent everything we can from the start.
External parasites and ear mites should be avoided. Look before and after purchase for any signs of issues. If we do see them, eliminate them from anyone who had contact with the infected dog. If you aren't sure what products to use, ask us and we will help you find the product needed. You can also use Revival's Flea and Tick Finder to help you choose the best flea and tick protection for your dog.
Breeding Dogs for The First Time
After you have chosen your dogs, start growing them for healthy maturity. You need to ensure they are growing well! Basic Doc Roy's Daily Care vitamins and an appropriate dog food will help accomplish this.
Feed a high quality dog food such as Purina or Royal Canin. Avoid feeding grain-free or raw meat diets as they are not nutritionally complete. Raw meat diets can introduce parasites and bacteria into the dams and pups. Provide access to plenty of fresh water from a clean source in dishes that are washed frequently.
Use year round heartworm, flea and tick preventive control products that are appropriate for your location and breed. Not all of these products are labeled as safe in breeding dogs. Bravecto for dogs is the only one of the four oral flea/tick preventives tested as safe for breeding animals. Most heartworm preventives are safe during pregnancy. These products also usually contain products to reduce intestinal parasites. See Revival's Flea and Tick Finder for help in selecting the right, flea and tick preventives for a breeding dog.
Do not house females and males together after five months of age, or you may get one of your females pregnant before they are mature. All mammals can get pregnant before they are physically ready to give birth. It is easy to manage away from this issue. Avoid surprises and C-sections by separating them.
When females reach one year of age, we want to boost their vaccine with a 7 or 8-way vaccine (Lepto and Corona) and de-worm with Safe-guard® Canine dewormer for dogs for three days. De-worming is needed as we likely have not de-wormed them since they were 12 weeks old. If they aren't on it already, put them on a Daily Care vitamin. Our goal is to get them ready for pregnancy and not to suddenly realize they are not cycling!
The earliest a female should be bred is the first solid heat after her first birthday and after proper health testing has been done. Consult your breed association to find out which tests are recommended for your breed. This timeline usually takes place around 16 to 20 months of age but varies by breed.
Breeding should be done every other day until the female quits standing. Usually this time frame allows her to be bred three times, but we have no history on these girls, so keep data on how they bred, how long they stand and how whelping went, as they will do the same next time. No two females are alike, but a female will do the same thing from heat cycle to heat cycle. To achieve greater accuracy in timing the breeding and the whelping or scheduled c-section, use progesterone testing.
First Time Whelping Puppies
Whelping puppies for the first time is stressful on moms, so you must be there for them. They cannot call their mom and ask if this is normal. You are that mom to console them and help with the babies. Closely observe mom until day three; by then, first-time moms have it down and you can relax a bit. Take note that most losses happen in first-litter moms during the first 48 hours. Progesterone testing is recommended for females with planned C-sections for better scheduling.
First Litter of Puppies
- Deworm mom before birth with Safe-guard® Canine for 45 days after day 42 gestation. (Read Managing Parasites in Dogs and Cats)
- Give one dose of calcium gel when a mom starts to labor. Always give one dose when you know they are going to whelp, repeat after the first puppy.
- Help babies out of the sack and clear the throat. A bulb syringe (or snot sucker) and Delee mucus trap that is used with human babies work very well at clearing the throat. Then give the puppy to mom to clean it if she wants and she is trustworthy. It quiets her.
- Newborns search for a nipple by weaving back and forth until they rub across a nipple and then they attach. If you're helping one attach, rub the nipple sideways across the muzzle to get them to latch on.
- The umbilical cord contains an artery and vein, so bacteria have a straight shot to the bloodstream and can easily cause infection. Navel infection is the number one cause of bacterial infection or “blue belly.” You can easily prevent this by dipping the navel in a tincture of iodine or straight Chlorhexidine to disinfect it. We also carry an umbilical clamp that can be used. These clamps are useful for C-section babies as it locks off the artery and vein. No bleeding and no infection can pass. The clamp and umbilical cord fall off by the fifth day.
Puppy Dewclaws and Tails
We still recommend removing dewclaws, especially on breeds that are active and tend to tear them on frozen ground or heavy cover. Dewclaws can't be retracted so often the long scratches on a kid's arms and face are from dewclaws. Removal is simple and prevents scratches at the puppy's forever home or an emergency vet clinic visit from tearing a dewclaw back.
Dewclaws should be removed from babies on days three to five, IF the puppies are vigorous and gaining weight. This is easily done with a hemostat and tissue glue. You can clamp with a hemostat at the base and scrape the nail away. Then apply a drop of tissue glue and remove the hemostat and press together again.
Tail docking is done at the same age but this takes more skill.
Puppies in General
- Puppies' eyes open at 10 to 14 days. If you see swelling or bulging of the eye(s) behind the eyelid, immediately open the pup's eyes and contact your veterinary clinic to get oral and topical antibiotics.
- Until eyes are open, puppies have little or no gag reflex so use caution when giving anything liquid by mouth. Be sure they are sucking on a syringe or dropper before you dose.
- Give Pyrantel dewormer for roundworms at two and four weeks of age.
How Old Do Puppies Have to Be to Drink Water and Eat Gruel?
- At three weeks of age, begin offering water to the pups in a heavy shallow dish or with a Lixit bottle.
- Most puppies are interested in gruel one to three weeks after the eyes open. This is usually at three weeks for giant breeds and five weeks for tiny breeds.
- Put warm water over dry puppy food and add milk replacer for a familiar flavor. Let the food stand for 20 minutes to let it soak up the liquid, and then mix it up and feed it in a flat pan.
- A Flying Saucer Pan works well for large breeds and helps keep food clean. Flat puppy pans or metal muffin tins work best for small-to-medium breeds.
- Block mom out and let puppies have access to the gruel for 30 minutes. Then put mom in to clean up the babies and eat the rest of the food. Puppies like all the licking mom gives them and mom likes the food!
- As puppies eat more gruel, they drink less milk and mom will slow down milk production. If mom is still lactating heavily, put her on a maintenance diet (lower calories) to help her back off milk production.
- Puppies at two and four weeks: Deworm with Pyrantel to take care of roundworms and hookworms.
- Puppies at six and eight weeks: Deworm with Safe-guard® for dogs three days in a row. Use Fenbendazole for five consecutive days if giardia is suspected.
- Roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, and Giardia are covered with Safe-guard® dewormer for dogs.
- You can give Albon for Coccidia at the same time.
- Using two different families of dewormer will avoid resistance developing in your kennel.
- When you send a puppy to his forever home, put a note in the puppy pack asking the veterinarian to deworm with Panacur.
Give puppies their first Parvo vaccine when they are six weeks old or as directed by your veterinary professional. You can give an intranasal Kennel Cough vaccine at the same time.
A general vaccine schedule is given below but consult your veterinarian for vaccine instructions specific to your area. Remember to keep it simple and boost every two to three weeks until they are nine weeks old. Keeping vaccines a minimum of two weeks apart to help prevent vaccine interference.
Puppies are ready for their new home when they:
- Are over eight weeks old and weaned
- Have received two Parvo vaccines, two weeks apart
- Have received one Distemper vaccine
- Are dewormed
Be sure to send a puppy pack home with the new owner, explaining what you have done and what is needed. The only thing they remember from picking up the puppy is how cute the puppy is! The puppy pack going home explains all you want them to know. It also avoids any misunderstanding by explaining what you will guarantee and what you will not. The Your Pandemic Puppy book written by Dr. Marty Greer is a great resource for new puppy owners. The book contains current information about behavior and medical care that new puppy owners might encounter. If you have questions on putting together a puppy pack, give our Pet Care Pros a call and we will be happy to help.
Canine Emergency Kits
Having an emergency kit on-hand is crucial. A situation only becomes an emergency if you don't have the treatment for the issue. Although the list could go on and on, start with the basics:
- Antihistamine for reactions to vaccine (slow, sluggish puppy) or any reactions to bee stings or bites. Diphenhydramine liquid is a good choice.
- Pressure wrap – ones that stick only to themselves and not the hair.
- Tissue glue – To seal any cut or issue with skin.
- Hemostat to clamp any issue or bleeder and for dewclaw removal.
- Dry electrolytes – Breeder's Edge® Puppy and Kitten Lyte helps maintain hydration and replenish electrolytes.
Basic kennel set up and managing plans for your first litter is straightforward, but when you have never raised a litter, it can be overwhelming. Vaccinating, deworming and making sure the babies eat are all part of that. Call us – we help you understand and manage your females for successful litters on the ground and to the next home!
*This article has been edited from its original format. Please note these suggestions are general guidelines only and there is no one-size-fits-all solution for every breeder or breed. Work closely with your local veterinarian and your breed association.
If you have more questions on your dogs first litter what to expect, call us at 800.786.4751.
Donald Bramlage, Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, Former Director of Veterinary Services at Revival Animal Health
Donald Bramlage, Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, practiced veterinary medicine for 30+ years and is known for his work in managing parvovirus. He received his Doctor of Veterinary Medicine from Kansas State University in 1985. He served as Revival's Director of Veterinary Services from 2011 until his retirement in 2019.