Diseases, Facility Management, Safe & Effective Cleaning
How to Use Oxine AH
August 11, 2022
How to Use Oxine® (AH)
Last updated: August 2, 2016
Applications for Activated Oxine® (AH)
Disinfecting kennels and confinements where animals can be removed:
Oxine® AH Activated formula is commonly used to disinfect commercial animal confinements such as poultry houses, swine pens, calf barns and kennels. When activated, the powerful chemistry of the chlorine dioxide and citric acid quickly acts to kill bacteria, fungi and viruses including E. coli, salmonella and Parvovirus. It even has been shown to have high sporicidal activity.
- Remove all animals and feed from the premises, vehicles, enclosures or crates.
- Remove all litter and manure from floors, walls, and surfaces of barn, pens, stalls, chutes and other facilities and fixtures occupied or traversed by animals.
- Empty all troughs, racks and all other feeding and watering appliances.
- Thoroughly clean all surfaces with soap or detergent and rinse with water.
- Prepare the active solution by placing 3.25 fl. oz. of Oxine® AH concentrate per gallon of working solution into a clean plastic pail and add 10 grams of the Citric Acid Crystals (no less than 99 percent pure). Prepare in a well-ventilated area. Allow the crystals to dissolve and activate the solution, which takes about five minutes. To this solution, add one gallon of clean potable water. This will yield a working solution containing 500 ppm of available chlorine dioxide.
- To apply, use a commercial sprayer and saturate all surfaces. Leave on for 10 minutes. Use a NIOSH/MSHA approved respirator.
- Immerse halters, ropes and other types of equipment used for handling or restraining animals as well as forks, shovels, scrapers and other tools used for litter or manure removal.
- After treatment, ventilate buildings, coops, and kennels and allow to air dry.
- Repopulate after area is completely dry.
- Thoroughly scrub feed racks, troughs, automatic feeders, fountains and waterers with soap detergent and rinse with clean potable water.
Applications for Using Non-Activated Oxine® AH
Feed Troughs and Storage Bins:
Effective cleaning of feed bins and containers is highly encouraged. The reason for this is because of the fungal growths commonly associated with these areas. Some strains of the fungus Aspergillus flavus produce aflatoxin, which is known to be carcinogenic. Allowing livestock to consume a carcinogen can have dramatic consequences. Feeds are usually manufactured and sold with a quality of being free from these toxins, but improper management of feed storage areas allows for the development of fungal growths that can spread from one supply to the next. Over time these growths can begin to produce byproducts that are detrimental to proper weight gains. OXINE can be used to help break the cycle of fungal growths associated with feed areas.
To control the buildup of slime forming bacteria in animal confinement areas:
- Remove all litter and manure from floors, walls, and surfaces of barn, pens, stalls, chutes and other facilities and fixtures occupied or traversed by animals. Thoroughly clean all surfaces with soap or detergent and rinse with water.
- Prepare the active solution by placing 6.5 fl. oz. of Oxine® AH concentrate per gallon of working solution into a clean plastic pail. Add one gallon of potable water for every 6.5 fl. oz. of Oxine® AH concentrate.
- To apply, use a commercial sprayer or fogger and saturate all areas. Always use a NIOSH/MSHA approved respirator to avoid breathing the mist.
Waterers and Tanks:
Oxine® AH is effectively used in waters that are open to the atmosphere and exposed to contamination. There are considerable economic, esthetic and health reasons for keeping these waters in a sanitary condition. With little attention to these reservoirs, significant levels of microorganisms can develop. Slime and odor-causing microorganisms cannot just survive, but can flourish in these waters. These microorganisms can develop a resistance to even significant levels of chlorination and form protective biofilm layers within the system. In an International Food Technology summary report from over two years of biofilm research, the active ingredient of Oxine® AH, chlorine dioxide, was listed as one of the most effective compounds for the destruction of biofilms. Our experience conforms completely with their findings. Oxine is highly effective in removing biofilms and microorganisms from these systems.
To control buildup of slime and odor-causing bacteria in feed waterers:
- Feed water should be treated at a rate of 1 fl. oz. of Oxine® AH concentrate per 30 gallons of water and may be injected or batch loaded. Feed pumps and injectors must be chlorine resistant for best operation.
- Feed water storage tanks should be sufficiently sealed to prevent outside contamination and direct sunlight.
To disinfect drinking water supply for poultry, swine, cattle and other livestock:
Use Bio-Cide International, Inc. automated activation equipment to generate an aqueous chlorine dioxide solution. Alternatively, Oxine® may be manually activated to generate an aqueous chlorine dioxide solution. The activated Oxine® solution can be either batch loaded or metered into the poultry and drinking water supply at a point in the system which ensures uniform mixing and distribution of up to 5 ppm chlorine dioxide.
- Automated Activation Equipment Method: Bio-Cide International, Inc., automated activation equipment may be used to generate an aqueous chlorine dioxide solution for metering into the water supply to treat at 3 to 5 ppm activated Oxine® concentration.
- Manual Activation Method: Activated Oxine® concentrate may be prepared by manual mixing and subsequent dilution for treatment of the water supply at 3 to 5 ppm according to the activation and dilution charts. For example, to manually prepare Activated Oxine® to treat 1,000 gallons of water at 3 ppm activated Oxine®:
- Preparation of active solution: Place 20 fl. oz. of Oxine® AH concentrate into a plastic container and add 60 grams of citric acid. Prepare in a well-ventilated area. Avoid breathing any fumes while crystals are dissolving. Gently stir until citric acid crystals are completely dissolved. Allow five minutes reaction time.
- The activated concentrate may then be added to 1,000 gallons of water. Allow ten minutes before delivery to livestock water lines.
One of the most interesting characteristics about Oxine® AH is the ability to reduce odors. This is primarily due to the chemical action of chlorine dioxide with sulfur and nitrogen atoms. Bad smelling odors, called malodors, are typically associated with a molecule that contains a sulfur or nitrogen atom. A vivid example of this fact is in the smell associated with skunks. This compound has a sulfur and hydrogen atom (SH), which allows it to fit into certain olfactory receptors in the nose. When this happens, the odor of a skunk is experienced. Oxine® AH chemically reacts with these types of molecules by oxidizing the sulfur atom and therefore changing the molecular structure. The molecule no longer stimulates the same olfactory receptors in the way it once did, and hence the odor is eliminated. Many malodors associated with agricultural production areas are associated with molecules easily oxidized and thus eliminated by Oxine® AH.
- EPA registration as a disinfectant for animal confinement facilities such as poultry house, swine pens, calf barns and kennels.
- EPA registration as a bacteriostat in animal confinement facilities where “all-in, all-out” cannot be practiced.
- Oxine® AH may be used on floors, walls and ceilings as well as handling and restraining equipment, forks, shovels and scrapers used for removing litter and manure.
- Fogging or spraying equipment may be conveniently located in confinement facilities and used to apply Oxine® AH for control and elimination of airborne microbial contaminants.
- When using activated Oxine® AH solutions, the facility should be depopulated.
- Oxine® AH may also be used as a bacteriostat (non-activated) for control of surface and airborne microbial contamination. While the use of more product may be necessary, depopulation is not required in this method of application.
Frequently Asked Questions About Oxine
- Is Oxine® AH Activated formula a registered product that is approved to use in my family?
Oxine® AH is an EPA registered product and has twenty-three pages of approvals for use in industries such as animal health, food processing, medical facilities and airlines. Oxine® AH also has approvals from FDA as well as USDA, and BCI continues to add new approvals periodically.
- If Oxine® AH is so good, then why am I just now hearing about it?
Bio-Cide International, Inc. has been manufacturing Oxine® AH for over twenty-six years. The primary use of Oxine® AH has been in food processing. In order to achieve the registrations and approvals required to provide Oxine® AH, BCI has spent the past several years pursuing the testing results to maintain registrations on its products. Now that much of that is complete, new markets once neglected are being looked at again.
- What about the safety aspects of Oxine® AH? Should I be afraid of it?
On the label, there is a single word statement that is required of all registered anti-microbial products. In order to determine which word must be listed, EPA considers the toxicity and safety of the product and places it into a category. There are four categories, and the safest is that of number four. Category one requires a “Dangerous,” while category two requires “Warning.” Categories three and four only need the “Caution” statement. Oxine® AH is considered a category three product and is only required to use the “Caution” on its label.
- Is Oxine® AH effective against the PRRS virus?
Oxine® AH activated formula has shown to be 100 percent virucidal against the PRRS virus in a recent test conducted at a USDA facility in Iowa. Other viruses tested are African Swine Fever, Newcastle Disease, Foot and Mouth Disease and Canine Parvovirus. While no complete list of efficacy can be performed by any company, Oxine® AH has always produced superior kills.
Proper Use of Oxine®
Oxine® AH is applied using one of three methods: hose-end sprayer, air mister or proportional pumping. The typical use and activation for each application method are outlined as follows:
Fill sprayer with Oxine® AH, add 2.0 ounce of citric acid (1 tablespoon) per 16 fluid ounces of Oxine® AH, and allow to set for five minutes. A yellow color should develop as an indicator that the product is being activated for use. Set adjustment on sprayer to deliver 1.0 fluid ounce of Oxine® AH per gallon of water (1:128) for control of bacteria, mold and fungi. Use a setting of 3.0 fluid ounce of Oxine® AH per gallon of water (1:42) for control of virus and spores.
In order to apply Oxine® AH around pipes and other difficult areas to disinfect, an air mister is an excellent tool. Also, better air quality can be obtained in confined areas by using periodic applications to the air. A concentration of 3.0 fluid ounce of Oxine® AH and two tablespoons of citric acid mixed and allowed to stand for five minutes can be diluted with one gallon of water and used in the mister. Another way to fill the mister is to use the hose-end-sprayer at a setting of 3.0 fluid ounces per gallon as mentioned above. This solution is then misted into the air. Compatible misters are available from Bio-Cide International, Inc.
Some applications of Oxine® AH can be made using a pump to dose treat volumes of water. If this is the case for your facility it is recommended that a BCI representative be contacted to assist with the calculation and set-up. However, understanding that a typical 1:128 ratio is equivalent to 1.0 fluid ounce per gallon and a 1:42 ratio is equivalent to 3.0 fluid ounces per gallon will be very useful in setting up a proportional pump unit.
High pressure spraying units are often used to apply chemicals in rooms previously cleaned. This method is adequate for Oxine® AH as long as the high pressure adjustment on the end of the wand is changed to a low pressure setting. A high pressure setting will cause the active ingredient of Oxine® AH to be displayed at the nozzle outlet and very little if any activity will be observed on the surface being disinfected.
If you need help, call us at 800.786.4751.
-The Revival Education Team