Cyclosporine can be used in dogs for the treatment of atopic dermatitis and perianal fistulas, and it can also be used as an immunosuppressant. In cats, cyclosporine is indicated for allergic dermatitis as manifested by excoriations (including facial and neck), miliary dermatitis, eosinophilic plaques and self-inflicted alopecia. It's also indicated as an immunosuppressant, usually as part of an immunosuppressive protocol.
Disposal of Unused Prescription Medications
- Return unwanted or unused medications to Revival Animal Health in person, or visit www.disposemymeds.org to find a pharmacy near you.
- A secondary method of drug disposal is to remove the unwanted medication from any wrappers or containers and place it in a plastic bag with moist coffee grounds or cat litter. This can be disposed of in the regular garbage collection.
- Please do NOT dispose of unwanted meds down the drain or toilet, as this may eventually find its way into the human water supply.
Learn more about disposal of unused prescription medications here
Disposal of Medical Sharps
- When you're finished with the syringe and needle, do not try to recap, remove, bend or break the needle. This is where most injuries occur.
- Dispose the syringe and needle immediately in a nearby sharps container. All sharps must be deposited in a puncture-proof container. Make sure your storage location is child and animal proof.
- As with all product handling, make sure you wash your hands after handling medical sharps.
Disposal of Sharps Container
- When your sharps container is half-full, sift dry Portland Cement throughout the sharps. Fill the container with water, and rotate until the cement is mixed and the sharps have been distributed throughout the cement mixture. Let cement dry for 24 hours.
- Seal the lid of the container tightly and use duct tape to seal. Label the container "Livestock Sharps" to properly identify the contents.
- Dispose of the containers in accordance with your state's regulations.
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Vomiting, diarrhea and anorexia are the most common side effects in dogs. Often, gastrointestinal distress occurs at the beginning of therapy, but this often decreases over time. These effects rarely require the discontinuation of the drug. It's suggested that these side effects can be abated by dosing cyclosporine with food or freezing the capsule for 30-60 minutes before administering. Gingival hyperplasia, hypertrichosis, altered glucose metabolism/diabetes mellitus, excessive shedding and papillomatosis have been noted. Oral and toothpaste forms of azithromycin have been used to treat gingival hyperplasia with little success (Rosenberg et al. 2013). Thromboembolic events and hepatotoxicity have been reported but are rare. Patients may become more vulnerable to infections or neoplastic disease because of cyclosporine's immunosuppressive effects.
To reduce vomiting in dogs at the start of therapy, some veterinarians begin with a low dose, give it with food, and slowly increase the oral doses for a week or so. One such procedure is: 1-2 mg/kg orally once daily for 2 days, 2-3 mg/kg orally once daily for 2 days, 3-4 mg/kg orally once daily for 3 days, and then 5 mg/kg orally once daily for 30 days. This method also suggests giving metoclopramide 30 minutes before cyclosporine; for the first 14 days, give cyclosporine with a meal, and after that 2 hours before a meal.
During the first month of therapy in cats, symptoms of gastrointestinal distress including vomiting, diarrhea, hypersalivation, decreased appetite and anorexia are often reported. Weight loss may result from these side effects and - rarely - may lead to hepatic lipidosis. Behavioral changes, increased hair growth, lethargy, malaise, gingival hyperplasia and flares of latent vital infections are also associated with feline patients on cyclosporine. Anaphylaxis is possible but very rare, and a cat reportedly developed a fatal systemic toxoplasmosis while on cyclosporine.
While nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity could be issues in dogs and cats, high levels of the drug (>3000 ng/mL) are apparently necessary for this to become a problem.
Patients may become predisposed to neoplastic diseases, especially during long-term use and when used in combination with other immunosuppressants (steroids).
This drug has an unpleasant taste. Patients might ingest the dosage better if the taste is concealed in food.
In rats and rabbits, cyclosporine is fetotoxic and embryotoxic in doses 2-5 times greater than normal. Use during pregnancy only when the benefits outweigh the risks.
Active Ingredient: Cyclosporine