Managing Female Problems

For years we did not know what to do with females to help them do their job of raising puppies better. The past 10 years have brought much information about managing fertility and managing gestation for babies that fight to live! Prenatal vitamin requirements and a better understanding of babies have brought about new management goals for mom.

Once pregnant, nature will do what it takes to get the pregnant mom, cat or dog, through gestation and live babies on the ground. If that means taking all the fat and protein from mom’s tissue, then that is what will happen. The current litter does not suffer. The next heat cycle is when you will pay for the deficiencies, such as not cycling, long intervals between heat, not getting pregnant, and small litters. Diet adequate, the other component we see in deficit for reproducing Females and Queens is vitamins. We want mom to have all she needs and some excess, so the body will reproduce to take advantage of the excess. That is how the cat and dog evolved in the wild and they still hold that reproduction principal today. Queens usually have smaller litters if there is a minor imbalance. The Female will cycle at longer intervals (yearly) or have a weak unpredictable heat. If we are to manage the pregnant mom effectively, we need to have predictable, fertile heat cycles. (Read Reproduction and Vitamins)


When we talk about Female problems, our goal is to get the female back to a predictable heat cycle and pregnant. When issues arise – having a plan to correct is the difference between removing the female from your breeding kennel and keeping her. Managed correctly, females are most healthy while pregnant!


Won’t settle or open after being bred
The best conception rate is when they are bred 4 days before or 3 days after ovulation. That is pretty wide window to hit! Open females after breeding is a common issue with middle aged females and are usually easy to correct. Often these are females that have shown for several years and cycles skipped, but the common age is 4-5 years and on the 3rd litter.
  • CAUTION – Be sure it is not Male Problem!
  • Why did the ovary not ovulate? You will read that timing of breeding is the #1 reason for missing a female, but we find that true for only the backyard breeder. The show breeder and the commercial breeder have a good idea when to breed and that ovulation is at the end of standing heat. Females do this the same, every time so they also know when she usually stands and how many days.
  • For commercial and show breeders, the female is often not ovulating at all. They “hang follicles” that are mature and then follicles regress without ovulating. Often the result is false pregnancy and resulting mastitis.
  • Put on Doc Roy's® Daily Care vitamins to be sure we are adequate plus some in minor nutrients!
  • To correct, we use Chorulon® HCG at 1cc/33 lbs -- This causes females to ovulate, No Choice.
    • Use at the last two - three breeding or use when Progesterone testing tells you she is ovulating!
    • In the past, we have used this only in the last breeding, but females can stand up to 8 days after ovulation so use when you AI if not Progesterone testing for ovulation. It has increased our success!
      • Progesterone 2 ng/dl in estrus - 6 ng/dl ovulated 2 days ago, breed and use HCG.
      • Can run Progesterone at human hospital – same test. Some Vet Clinics have this test in house.
Most become pregnant with HCG and do not have this issue with subsequent breeding -- Problem solved. If we don’t get pregnant with HCG, then we need to ultrasound for endometritis.

Pregnancy Ketosis
Recognize early and save the litter! These pregnant females are bellying down, protein demand goes up and diet is inadequate. Mom is off food then sick and breath smells like “cleaning fluid” which is caused by Ketones from breaking down mom's tissues!
  • Anorexic – no appetite caused by Protein Malnutrition. Lose babies and/or mom.
  • Rx: improve diet: High quality puppy food - force feed if needed.
  • If Ketosis progresses -- May need to terminate pregnancy to save mom.
***Preventing Ketosis is the reason why we put moms on puppy food the last 2-3 weeks of pregnancy!


Uterine involution follows whelping or in the non-pregnant female after heat cycle is not complete until approximately 120 days following ovulation. (Dr. Threlfall)

Vaginal Discharge
Vaginal discharge, post breeding, is abnormal but if it smells at all – you are infected. Uterine infection is treatable! Have the female examined by your veterinarian to be sure of your diagnosis because the treatment will abort her if she is pregnant. Get her on antibiotic as soon as you see it to prevent toxicity from infection. Left alone, uterine infection can become life threatening!

Post-Whelping Discharge
Lochia or Uterine discharge is normal for 4+ weeks.
  • Pale Brown to pale Green color. Discharge increases after nursing – Oxytocin release causes milk let down and uterine contraction.
  • Serum – mucus like with no odor. If it does not smell do not worry about discharge post whelping.
  • If it smells it is abnormal – treat it!
Rectal temp of 103° is not unusual for several days post whelping. Temp has nothing to do with infection, just the muscle activity of birth and the hormonal changes.

Treatable with Prostaglandin F2a
  • Lutalyse 50 mcg/LB/bid/ 3 to 6 days until no discharge is seen.
  • Causes abdominal cramping (Vomiting, loose stool, salivation)
  • Sulfa-Trimeth antibiotic for 3 weeks.
  • Sulfa-Trimeth during next heat cycle 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after next whelping!

Mismating or Unwanted Pregnancy
Management is the best prevention here, but if it does happen, the goal is aborting the unwanted pregnancy while preserving the reproductive life of the female. The female must be over 18 days pregnant for the F2a to work. Be sure the female is pregnant before putting through the F2a abortion.
  • Start at the 100 ug/lb dosage SQ with expanded volume with saline to 10cc / every 12 hours / 4 days.
  • The side effects include: increased salivation, increased heart rate, increased respiration, increased defecation, increased urination, increased gagging, vomiting, ataxia, and mild depression. These side effects begin 20 minutes following administration and last 20 minutes. Females can be aborted starting treatment at 53 days of gestation using this procedure for medical reasons.
  • The advantage of this treatment is that it is physiologic; F2a is made by the body. There are no long term effects on the female, and there are no short or long term effects on reproductive health.

Mastitis milk won’t hurt puppy but puppy won’t nurse bad milk!
  • E-Coli is #1, Staph and Strep all cause mastitis. Use an Antibiotic to cover.
    • Sulfa-Trimeth 25 mg/lb is my choice if eating.
  • Common co-infection usually uterine! Watch for discharge and treat as above.
  • Milk out gland or hot pack -- Warm H2O bath
  • Pain Rx: Rimadyl®, Banamine
  • Bad case - May need to remove gland like abscess.

Female Culling
Mom puts puppy to the side and does not care for it.
  • Puppy is chilled – Rectal temp below 95°F! Hypothermia is the #1 cause of death in the newborn! (Anderson)
  • Tube Feed only warm fluids and electrolytes (RE-SORB®) until rectal temp is 95°F -- then give electrolytes/milk. Warm slowly over several hours depending on degree of chilling. Once warm and nursing, return to mom! Losses are high during warm up if warming too fast.
  • Chilled puppy has decreased suckling reflex as well. For problem litters - warming and Doc Roy's® Forti Cal on the tongue solves most nursing issues!

There are other issues such as milk fever that are covered in another article. (Careful with Calcium) Most females have no problems. When issues do arise – having a plan to correct is the difference between removing the female from your breeding kennel and keeping her.

If you need help, call us at 1-800-786-4751.

-Dr. B
Don Bramlage, DVM, Director of Veterinary Services at Revival Animal Health

The materials, information and answers provided through this website are not intended to replace the medical advice or services of a qualified veterinarian or other pet health care professional. Consult your own veterinarian for answers to specific medical questions, including diagnosis, treatment, therapy or medical attention.

Return to Articles
1700 Albany Place SE • Orange City, IA 51041
800-786-4751 •